Islam in Spain
The “Marca” was the territorial and administrative division that the Muslims made in order to control the territory better. In Al Andalus Islam in Spain there were three marcas: the Superior Marca, with Zaragoza as its capital, and occupying most of the land that is now Aragonese, along with other Navarran, Riojan, and Catalan lanas; the Middle Marca with its capital in Toledo, occupying the southernmost part of Aragon (Teruel and Albarracin) and the Lower Marca in the southwest part of the Peninsula.
Around 714, the Arab Tarik established what would be the first urban settlement, a small Muslim village located in the highest part of the hill, and it was called Tirwal, which means watchtower or military bastion. It later belonged to the Taifa Kingdom of Albarracin. Islamic presence in Aragon dates back to 714, extending to 1171, year of the conquest of the Teruel territories. According to legend, the armies of the king came to the place where the city of Teruel is today located, after following a fierce bull above which a star moved at the same speed. The origin of the name of the city is not clear. There are those who say that it came from the name of Tirwal, and others say that it comes from joining the Aragonese words Tor (Bull) and Uel (Star).
Teruel and Albarracín were a kingdom that was independent from the Cordovan Caliphate which belonged to the family of Beni Razin, who gave it its present name. With Ibn Ammar this territory attained great splendour as a centre of culture and refinement.